The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between market structure and performance in the wine sector using data from two Canadian provinces. Investigation is conducted on alternative hypothesis defined as the Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) hypothesis, the Relative-Market-Power (RMP) hypothesis and the Efficiency Structure (ES) hypothesis. The performance is measured by the number of awards gained by wineries. Using regression analysis, we find support to the ES hypothesis. The empirical findings suggest that more research should be done on the efficiency structure of wineries in their respective markets.