This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption, deterrence, and crime for New York City. We examine high-frequency time-series data from 1983 to 2001 for one specific location to examine the impacts of variations in both alcohol consumption and deterrence on seven “index” crimes. We tackle the endogeneity of arrests and the police force by exploiting the temporal independence of crime and deterrence in these high-frequency data, and we address the endogeneity of alcohol by using instrumental variables where alcohol sales are instrumented with city and state alcohol taxes and minimum drinking age. We find that alcohol consumption is positively related to assault, rape, and larceny crimes but not murder, robbery, burglary, or motor vehicle theft. We find strong deterrence for all crimes except assault and rape. Generally, deterrence effects are stronger than alcohol effects.
It is hard to imagine in the 21st global wine economy, but until 50 years ago Algeria was the largest exporter of wine in the world – and by a wide margin. Between 1880 and 1930 Algerian wine production grew dramatically. Equally spectacular is the decline of Algerian wine production: today, Algeria produces and exports little wine. This paper analyzes the causes of the rise and the fall of the Algerian wine industry. There was an important bi-directional impact between developments of the Algerian wine sector and French regulations. French regulations had a major impact on the Algerian wine industry. Vice versa, the growth of the Algerian wine industry triggered the introduction of important wine regulations in France at the beginning of the 20th century and during the 1930s. Important elements of these regulations are still present in the European Wine Policy today.
We present a model of vine-growing specialization in the municipalities of the province of Barcelona in the mid-19th century that explains how a comparative advantage arose through a process deemed to be one of the starting points for Catalan industrialization. The results confirm the roles played by the ‘Boserupian’ population-push on land-use intensification and the ‘Smithian’ market-pull in a growing demand from the Atlantic economy. They also stress the conditioning function of agro-ecological endowments and socio-institutional settings related to income inequality. Vineyard planting gave rise to less unequal rural communities until 1820, but inequality grew again afterwards.
Although it is very difficult to find any research that has been devoted to establish the value of wine education courses on consumers, gatekeepers are pinning a lot of hope on wine education to create or restore value. The purpose of this research was to investigate if wine courses lead to any changes in perception, consumption pattern and modify the consumer’s degree of involvement for the category.
We investigate various characteristics, including firm-level panel data, of the Japanese beer market over time (over 30 years) to determine the level and nature of competition. Next, we conduct two sets of regressions using market share and firm-level accounting data in a variation of Boone’s (2008) measure of competition. While traditional indicators (very high market concentration, little or no overt price competition) suggest that Japanese beer firms do not compete, Boone-style regressions yield strong evidence of competitive behavior.
Almost half of the world’s vineyards are in the EU and the EU produces around 60% of the world’s wine. The EU is also the world’s most regulated wine market. In 2007, the European Union decided on a major reform of its wine policy, the so-called Common Market Organization (CMO) for wine. A crucial element was the abolishment of a system of planting rights to regulate planting of vineyards in the EU. However, before its implementation opponents of the liberalization of planting rights are lobbying EU governments to reverse the decision. Our paper provides the first theoretical analysis of the economic effects and the welfare implications of planting rights. Our model integrates the markets for land, planting rights and wine to analyze the efficiency and distributional effects. We analyze the impact of enforcement problems, trade restrictions, and the use of government reserves in the planting rights system.
Since wine is an experience good, experts may help to fill a lack of information to non-expert consumers. In the literature, the true impact of experts on the pricing of wine is unclear. Do they really influence the price? Is there a Parker effect? Or are meteorological conditions predominant? We use a dataset concerning the scores attributed to wines from France, Spain and United States by 19 experts over the period 2000-2010 and the corresponding meteorological conditions. The data aims to avoid endogeneity and bias rooted in errors of judgment. We show that Bordeaux wine prices are very sensitive to expert ratings, but this impact is not higher than it is for Californian wines or Spanish wines. Furthermore, we did not find any direct evidence of a Parker effect for Bordeaux wine, but a presumption of measurement errors of any individual expert.
This study examines vertical coordination in an emerging Illinois wine industry. Results generally corroborate earlier findings that quality matters, as temporal issues related to grape perishability increase the probability written contracts are used to procure grapes and decrease reliance on informal agreements. Hold-up concerns related to sourcing adequate quality grapes and at risk investments winemaking equipment displace informal contracts with in-house production. Older wineries also rely more on their own vineyards, and larger ones require additional outside supplies. There is also some evidence that a few wineries outsource wine production activities to more experienced and larger wineries.
It has been a persistent phenomenon in many societies that a large proportion of alcohol consumption takes place in company of other people. While the phenomenon of social or public drinking is well discussed in disciplines as social psychology and anthropology, econo- mists have paid little attention to the social environment of alcohol consumption. This paper tries to close this gap and explains social drinking as a trust facilitating device. Since alcohol consumption tends to make some people (unwillingly) tell the truth, social drinking can eventually serve as a signaling device in social contact games.
Do well-known restaurants stand the test of time? The objective of this short paper is to review the list of the top ranked restaurants from 1974 to 2010 and examine the sustainability of the grades of these restaurants over time. A new methodology to calculate migration and default rates is presented for selected years over the period under study. It is shown that these rates are relatively stable and low compared to bankruptcy rates. After 24 years, the default rate of top ranked restaurant is only about 32%.