AAWE, Economics Dept, New York University, 19 W 4th St, 6Fl., New York NY 10012aawe@wine-economics.org

Category archive: Working Papers

AAWE Working Paper No. 210 – Business

AAWE Working Paper No. 210 – Business

Employing resource-based perspectives of the firm as a theoretical foundation, this article empirically examines the relationship between women in two different types of leadership roles and environmentally sustainable firms. I study an unbalanced panel data set of 2,006 wine firms in Australia for the period 2007–2014. The results suggests that when accounting for their individual, independent effects, women in technical leadership roles are positively associated with environmental sustainability, while women in professional leadership roles are not. However, the potential complementarities of women in both roles are explored, their interactive, co-joint (complementary) effect explains significantly more variance in the environmental sustainability variable than their individual effects. The results are discussed along with limitations and directions for future research.

AAWE Working Paper No. 209 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 209 – Economics

Wine production in Québec over the last twenty years has grown rapidly with an increased interest for diversified products in terms of quality and price. The growth of supply is related not only to the number of producers but also to the increased varieties of wines proposed. This paper proposes an economic analysis of wine production in Québec by analyzing the concentration level of producers. The level of competition has increased significantly between 2008 and 2105 due to an increasing number of small wine producers. An index of relative firm position in the market based on relative prices is calculated and we demonstrate that a high price strategy is significantly related to the size of the vineyard rather than the age of the domain or the number of wines produced.

AAWE Working Paper No. 208 – History and Politics

AAWE Working Paper No. 208 – History and Politics

There is much debate on the impact of product and process standards on trade. The conceptual arguments are complex and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyze the impact of standards and tariffs on the dramatic rise and fall of the raisin trade between France and Greece in the course of 25 years at the end of the 19th century. The case illustrates how product standards can be used to address consumer concerns and to protect producer interests. Economic conditions and French policies first stimulated Greek raisin imports. Later, changing conditions and political pressures led to the introduction of tariffs and wine standards which caused major declines in Greek exports and ultimately the bankruptcy of the Greek economy. Interestingly, this trade episode of more than a century ago still has a regulatory legacy today as it is the origin of the EU’s definition of wine.

AAWE Working Paper No. 207 – History and Politics

AAWE Working Paper No. 207 – History and Politics

While one cannot speak of sustained French immigration to the American colonies, some notable examples can be cited. The Labadists were mystics who lived communally on their 4,000 acre Maryland farm. There were the French settlers of Gallipolis in Ohio who, it appears, produced a wine so poor in quality it was named méchant Suresne after a wine known for its sourness produced near Paris. The arrival of French Huguenots in South Carolina is of particular interest because, for the first time, a large group of settlers reached the New World with the primary aim of growing grapes. They had left France for England to escape religious persecution and in 1763 petitioned the British Government to provide them with land in South Carolina so that they could “apply themselves to the cultivation of vines and of silk.” The request was approved. Setting sail a year latter, the Huguenots reached South Carolina founding the township of New Bordeaux in the southern part of the colony. They were joined four years later by another group of co-religionists lead by the forceful Louis de Mesville de Saint Pierre. But now came a setback. The colony’s governing body refused to provide the settlers with the funds needed to purchase vine cuttings. Saint Pierre thereupon decided to return to England and appeal for financial aide to Lord Hillsborough secretary for the American Colonies, but to no avail.

AAWE Working Paper No. 206 – History and Politics

AAWE Working Paper No. 206 – History and Politics

The 1860–1970 period is a particularly interesting period to study wine trade because of dramatic changes in the wine markets and trade over the course of a century. The dramatic changes in trade flows were caused by both “nature” and “men”. Mediterranean wine trade represented around 90% of global wine trade and France was the world’s leading exporter. The arrival of Phylloxera devastated French vineyards and stimulated Spanish and Italian wine exports. When French wine production recovered, French winegrowers pressured their government to intervene, resulting in high tariffs on Spanish and Italian wines and Greek raisins. The protectionist trade regime contributed to the bankruptcy of Greece and to the substitution of wine trade from Spain and Italy to France’s North African colonies. When Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia became independent, France imposed high wine tariffs, effectively killing their wine exports. The decline of the wine industry in North Africa coincided with the trade and policy integration of the South European wine exporters in the EEC—the predecessor of the EU.

AAWE Working Paper No. 205 – Business

AAWE Working Paper No. 205 – Business

This study examines features of regional clusters and environmental sustainability among member firms. By studying a sample of 646 firms across four regional wine clusters in Australia, the evidence suggests regiona l export intens it y is positive ly associat ed wit h implementation rates of environmentally sustainable practices. Further, as women in leadership roles (as a proxy for social proximity) grow within regional clusters, this strengthens the relationship between export intensity and environmental sustainability. The results advance research on the features of regional clusters that are expected to influence the adoption of organiza tio na l practices among member firms. Conclusio ns are presented along with limitations and future research opportunities.

AAWE Working Paper No. 204 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 204 – Economics

Everything you know about wine is right — for now. But by mid-century, it will be wrong, and here’s why. Climate change, shifting global demand, consumer preferences, new vinification techniques, and marketing will transform the industry and upend conventional wisdom. This transformation has profound implications for the environmental footprint of the industry and conservation, both in traditional wine regions and in emerging wine-producing areas.
Things that would ring true to a well-informed wine consumer right now might include: Most wine is produced in Mediterranean climates;
European wine regions are a successful marketing tool;
China isn’t a big consumer of European-style wine;
Extensive chemical manipulation during vinification is not common in fine wines.
By 2050, each of these statements will be wrong, and the stakes couldn’t be higher – for wine, for the environment, and for the environmental footprint of wine production. Let’s look at each of these themes in turn.

AAWE Working Paper No. 203 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 203 – Economics

The objective of the paper is to investigate how the market structure of grape varieties affects the performance in the wine industry. We examine the export performance of countries in 2000 and 2010 and analyze the market structure hypothesis applied to grape varieties and the technical efficiency of the market structure of grapes on exports performance using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology. Our results are based on a sample of 20 major wine exporting countries. First, only a few countries are efficient. Second, a small number of prime varieties is not a condition to obtain efficiency. Finally, concentration of top varieties is not sufficient to be efficient.

AAWE Working Paper No. 202 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 202 – Economics

This paper identifies the macroeconomic determinants of fine wine prices and estimates their impacts on a monthly database from 1996 to 2015. The fine wine demand from emerging markets plays a key role in fine wine pricing, and more precisely, on the fluctuation of Bordeaux fine wine prices. Furthermore, the continuous weakening of the U.S. Dollar in real term favors the fine wine prices to increase. Since 2011, the slowdown of economic growth in emerging markets, followed by the depreciation of national currencies has engendered negative effects on the fine wine market. Along with the process of financialization in the fine wine market, fine wine prices have become more volatile. Factors such as money supply, real interest rate and the growth of investment funds start to show their influence on fine wine pricing.

AAWE Working Paper No. 201 – Business

AAWE Working Paper No. 201 – Business

This study investigates the impact of working capital management (WCM) on firm profitability in the French wine industry. Based on annual data of 430 wine-producing firms from 2003 to 2014, we estimated the impact of the cash conversion cycle (CCC) and its components (days inventory, receivable and payable) on the return on assets. Other firm factors, such as size, growth, tangibility and leverage, were used for control. We took into account nonlinearity, unobservable heterogeneity, heteroscedasticity and endogeneity through the two-step GMM estimation method and showed that WCM did not have a significant impact on the profitability of French wine firms. Furthermore, we found no optimal level of CCC that would allow the firms to maximize their profitability. Only days account receivable and payable significantly and negatively impacted profitability. These results differ from those of previous studies and suggest that French wine firms should shorten the time both to collect cash from sales and pay providers. Contrarily to what we believe, the delay in converting inventories to cash does not significantly impact profitability. The managerial implications of these results were further explored by interviewing three wine firms in the south of France.

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