AAWE, Economics Dept, New York University, 19 W 4th St, 6Fl., New York NY 10012aawe@wine-economics.org

Author archive: Karl Storchmann

AAWE Working Paper No. 217 – Business

AAWE Working Paper No. 217 – Business

Little research has considered the potential influence of distant, external pressures on the implementation of firms’ ‘green’ innovations, nor how internal firm resources might moderate this relationship. By combining institutional and resource-based theories and examining 649 firms in Australia, I find that export intensity is positively associated with green innovations. Further, as women in leadership roles increases in firms, the relationship strengthens between export intensity and green innovations. The results also suggest that greater levels of absorptive capacity among firms strengthens the relationship between export intensity and green innovations. Contributions of the findings are discussed along with limitations and future research opportunities.

AAWE Working Paper No. 216 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 216 – Economics

The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually as well as when consumed together. Three wines (a white one, Pouilly Loché; and two red ones Maranges and Beaujolais) and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource) were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono- intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique list of 14 descriptors (covering cheese and wine perception) and a hedonic scale for dynamical rating of liking. The dynamic hedonic data was associated to the TDS profiles obtaining Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL). The nine wine-cheese associations were evaluated by multi-bite and multi-sip TDS, consumed in a free manner. Individually, Chaource had practically no TDL, in Comté mushroom flavor was a positive TDL, and in Epoisses salty was a negative TDL. All wines presented TDL, but negative were only present in the red ones: bitter, sour and astringent. In wines, the positive TDL were: fruity, spicy and woody. Dynamic perception changes had a bigger impact on liking in wine compared to cheese. For the associations, the negative TDL were only three and mostly wine related: sour (for 7/9 combinations), bitter (6/9) and astringent (5/9). Positive TDL were more varied (a total of 10 descriptors) and were related either to wine or cheese. As opposed to what was found in cheese alone, salty was a positive TDL in two of the combinations. It was observed that the dynamic sensory perception had a more important impact on liking in wine-cheese combinations than when consumed separately. This shows that TDS and TDL have a big potential in the study of food pairing which should be further exploited.

AAWE Working Paper No. 215 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 215 – Economics

It is obvious that exchange rates in􏰆uence exports since they add a 􏰆uctuating component to the costs or rather to the price in the destination country and therefore in􏰆uence the international competitive ability. Whether this in- 􏰆uence on exports is of a special non-linear path dependence, called hysteresis, is investigated in this paper. To identify hysteresis, three methods are pre- sented and compared. First, the spurt method developed by Belke and Göcke [2001], second, the Preisach addition method which was used by Hallett and Piscitelli [2002] and third, the Preisach replacement technique which can be found in de Prince and Kannebley Junior [2013]. Both Preisach approaches use an algorithm provided by Piscitelli et al. [2000] to derive the so called Preisach variable from the exchange rate time series. After 􏰅nding hysteresis in export values the question arises if the hysteresis descends from hysteresis in prices or quantities, see Göcke and Werner [2015]. Therefore, the study analyses values, quantities and prices, i. e. unit values, of European wine exports to the USA. As the entry into the US market requires sunk costs, for example for dealing with the extensive regulations, see e. g. Beliveau and Rouse [2010], FTA [2015], the requirements for the appearance of hysteresis are conformed. Indeed, the esti- mations revealed hysteresis for values in case of Italy and Spain and for prices in case of Italy and France.

AAWE Working Paper No. 214 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 214 – Economics

Overview Wine Production in Germany
Although grapevines have been cultivated in present day Germany since Roman times (e.g., Bassermann-Jordan, 1907), compared to European wine growing nations such as France, Italy, and Spain, Germany has never been a major wine producing country. Its geographical location between the 48th and 54th parallel and the resulting marginal climate restricts grape growing to the valleys of the Rhine river and its tributaries Ahr, Mosel, Nahe, and Main in the south-west. In addition, some professional viticulture, though at a much smaller scale, can also be found in the valleys of the Saale-Unstrut and the Elbe river in the eastern part of present day Germany (see Figure GER-1).
However, Germany in its current borders has only existed since 1990, when West and East Germany reunified (depicted in dark gray in Figure GER-1). At one time or another, a few other viticultural regions belonged to what was then called Germany (in light gray in Figure GER-1). The most significant one was certainly Alsace-Lorraine, which was part of the German Empire between 1871 and 1918, and, in some years, accounted for as much as a third of the entire German wine production. Similarly significant was the merger with Austria, which joined Nazi- Germany in 1938, and became the province Reichsgau Ostmark until 1945. A few somewhat smaller wine growing regions in Posen and Silesia (e.g., Zielona Góra, German Grünberg), now Poland, once belonged to Prussia and, before 1818, were virtually the only domestic wine suppliers within the Kingdom.
This study refers to Germany within its present day borders and all figures for “German wine production” will exclude Alsace-Lorraine, the Polish regions, and Austria by re-aggregating the production data of the official statistics.

AAWE Working Paper No. 213 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 213 – Economics

The California Grape Crush Report includes summaries of quantities produced and estimates of the average prices and value of wine grapes crushed in California, and serves as an authoritative source of information on production and returns per ton by variety of wine grapes. The data provided in the Crush Report are used to calculate the total value of winegrape production as reported in the annual Agricultural Statistics reports published by the United States Department of Agriculture and in major industry publications. We use the differences among crush districts in the shares of production crushed to growers’ accounts to show that the current mechanism of calculating average statewide returns per ton understates the true total value of the crush by 4–16 percent. We show that a more accurate estimate of the total value and average price can be obtained if the prices of the wine grapes that are sold are used to infer the prices of wine grapes that are not sold before computing the weighted averages.

AAWE Working Paper No. 212 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 212 – Economics

Structured Abstract
Purpose:
French Oak barrels are considered a vital input for the finest wines, and comprise a very large portion of wine production costs. Wineries in the United States purchase French oak barrels priced in Euros, and have the opportunity to pay for their barrels early, in April, with a discount or in September with no discount. Given the inherent complexities in fluctuating exchange rates and limited resources of the average winery, little consideration has been placed on this purchasing decision despite potentially large cost implications.
Design/methodology/approach:
The present work analyzes historical and barrel-specific data over the last fifteen years to find a huge monetary advantage to early purchasing and obtaining the price discount, even accounting for exchange rate volatility and opportunity costs. Barrel-specific prices were obtained from Continuum Estate in Napa, California, though the authors provide detailed analysis and a broader interpretation to aid in practical decisions of typically structured wineries in the United States.
Findings:
Early purchasing of French oak barrels over the past fifteen years, accounting for lost interest, would have decreased average winery costs by over $60,000 as compared to paying upon delivery. For larger producing-wineries, this savings is even more pronounced.
Originality/value:
This is the first paper to investigate the existence of an optimal decision rule regarding the purchasing of wine barrels, a vital input to wine production. This is of interest to not only those involved in the growing industry of wine-making, media and wine connoisseurs, but also to any similarly structured firm facing early commitments at a reduced price.

AAWE Working Paper No. 211 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 211 – Economics

We conduct a choice experiment where the number of labels vertically differentiating Chianti wines (Chianti, Chianti Classico, Chianti Classico Riserva, Chianti Classico Gran Selezione) is augmented incrementally in a between-subject design, eliciting both quality perceptions and wine choices. We find that quality expectations are endogenous to the labeling regime, and adding a high-quality label (e.g., Chianti Gran Selezione) decreases the perceived quality of all other Chianti wines (comparative stigma). A model conditioning on subjective quality perceptions with heterogeneous WTP for quality is then proposed, and estimated via random parameter multinomial logit. The endogeneity problem arising from using subjective beliefs as regressors is addressed by means of a control-function approach. Results are compared to reduced form approaches where the marginal utility of quality and subjective perceptions are confounded in a single label-specific estimate, and the model is used to determine how much of the cannibalization observed after introducing higher-tier quality standards is attributable to restructuring of perceptions and comparative stigma.

AAWE Working Paper No. 210 – Business

AAWE Working Paper No. 210 – Business

Employing resource-based perspectives of the firm as a theoretical foundation, this article empirically examines the relationship between women in two different types of leadership roles and environmentally sustainable firms. I study an unbalanced panel data set of 2,006 wine firms in Australia for the period 2007–2014. The results suggests that when accounting for their individual, independent effects, women in technical leadership roles are positively associated with environmental sustainability, while women in professional leadership roles are not. However, the potential complementarities of women in both roles are explored, their interactive, co-joint (complementary) effect explains significantly more variance in the environmental sustainability variable than their individual effects. The results are discussed along with limitations and directions for future research.

AAWE Working Paper No. 209 – Economics

AAWE Working Paper No. 209 – Economics

Wine production in Québec over the last twenty years has grown rapidly with an increased interest for diversified products in terms of quality and price. The growth of supply is related not only to the number of producers but also to the increased varieties of wines proposed. This paper proposes an economic analysis of wine production in Québec by analyzing the concentration level of producers. The level of competition has increased significantly between 2008 and 2105 due to an increasing number of small wine producers. An index of relative firm position in the market based on relative prices is calculated and we demonstrate that a high price strategy is significantly related to the size of the vineyard rather than the age of the domain or the number of wines produced.

AAWE Working Paper No. 208 – History and Politics

AAWE Working Paper No. 208 – History and Politics

There is much debate on the impact of product and process standards on trade. The conceptual arguments are complex and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyze the impact of standards and tariffs on the dramatic rise and fall of the raisin trade between France and Greece in the course of 25 years at the end of the 19th century. The case illustrates how product standards can be used to address consumer concerns and to protect producer interests. Economic conditions and French policies first stimulated Greek raisin imports. Later, changing conditions and political pressures led to the introduction of tariffs and wine standards which caused major declines in Greek exports and ultimately the bankruptcy of the Greek economy. Interestingly, this trade episode of more than a century ago still has a regulatory legacy today as it is the origin of the EU’s definition of wine.

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